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Waste Materials That Can Be Utilised As A Fuel Source For Cement Kilns

Numerous different types of waste materials have been utilised as a fuel source for cement kilns in the United States and Europe. Some of these include:

Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF) (Example: scrap paper and plastics)
Densified Refuse Derived Fuels (DRDF) (pelletised paper and plastics)
Scrap Tyres
Rice Hulls
Coke Fines
Carbon Black
Scrap Plastic
Wastes Oils
Spent Potliners (from the aluminium industry)
Spent Catalyst
Contaminated Soils
Spent Gypsum
Refinery Solids
Liquid Organic Wastes

Liquid And Solid Special Wastes

The easiest of these to handle are the liquid wastes since they can be received in a lorry, analysed, blended and injected into a kiln. Handling waste solids and semi-solids are a different matter. Depending upon the type of kiln, the waste solids can be pneumatically injected, introduced with the kiln feed through a double-gate airlock or through the side of a long kiln by the use of a charging gate arrangement. All of which are being done successfully in the US and Europe.

Waste Generators

The typical generators of large volumes of solvents consist of the following industries:

Paint / Coating Manufacturers
Printing Ink Manufacturers
Printing Companies
Automobile Manufacturers
Solvent Recyclers
Waste Disposal Brokers
Waste derived fuels made of many sources from the above industries may be know as:

Ink Washes
Paint Thinners
Lacquer Thinners
Mineral Spirits
Stoddard Solvents
Still bottoms
Off Spec streams
Typical chemical families that make up these liquid fuels are:

Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Oxygenated Hydrocarbons

Special Liquid, Semi-Solid and Solid Waste Generators:

Typical generators of these types of wastes are:

Automobile Garages: Waste Oils
Transmission Fluids
Refineries: Tank Bottoms
DAF solids
API solids
Off Spec Product
Contaminated Soils
Lagoon/Pond cleanups
Aluminium Industry: Spent potliners
Waste Disposal Industry: Drum Solids
Tank Bottoms
Contaminated Soils
Still Bottoms (distillation bottoms)
Others: Various Lube Oils
Dried sewage sludges

Depending upon current or proposed regulations, some of these solids may still be disposed of in landfills. To be able to be utilised in a WDF program, a specially designed solid handling system may need to be designed or constructed for several of these waste streams. This can be accomplished with ERAtech's proprietary solid fuel handling systems.